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Title: DNA methylation and the core pluripotency network
Other Titles: -
Authors: Shanak, Siba$AAUP$Palestinian
Helms, Volkhard$Other$Other
Keywords: DNA methylation
Stem cells
Transcription factor
Issue Date: 15-Aug-2020
Publisher: Developmental Biology- ScienceDirect
Citation: Shanak, S. & V. Helms (2020) DNA methylation and the core pluripotency network. Developmental Biology, 464, 145-160.
Series/Report no.: Volume 464, Issue 2;Pages 145-160
Abstract: From the onset of fertilization, the genome undergoes cell division and differentiation. All of these developmental transitions and differentiation processes include cell-specific signatures and gradual changes of the epigenome. Understanding what keeps stem cells in the pluripotent state and what leads to differentiation are fascinating and biomedically highly important issues. Numerous studies have identified genes, proteins, microRNAs and small molecules that exert essential effects. Notably, there exists a core pluripotency network that consists of several transcription factors and accessory proteins. Three eminent transcription factors, OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG, serve as hubs in this core pluripotency network. They bind to the enhancer regions of their target genes and modulate, among others, the expression levels of genes that are associated with Gene Ontology terms related to differentiation and self-renewal. Also, much has been learned about the epigenetic rewiring processes during these changes of cell fate. For example, DNA methylation dynamics is pivotal during embryonic development. The main goal of this review is to highlight an intricate interplay of (a) DNA methyltransferases controlling the expression levels of core pluripotency factors by modulation of the DNA methylation levels in their enhancer regions, and of (b) the core pluripotency factors controlling the transcriptional regulation of DNA methyltransferases. We discuss these processes both at the global level and in atomistic detail based on information from structural studies and from computer simulations.
Description: -
ISSN: ISSN (online) 2221-3759
Appears in Collections:Faculty & Staff Scientific Research publications

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