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|Metabolic and Epigenetic Action Mechanisms of Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants
|Diabetes is a predominant metabolic disease nowadays due to the off-beam lifestyle of diet and reduced physical activity. Complications of the illness include the gene-environment interactions and the downstream genetic and epigenetic consequences, e.g., cardiovascular diseases, tumor progression, retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria, and weight loss. This review sheds the light on the mechanistic insights of antidiabetic medicinal plants in targeting key organs and tissues involved in regulating blood glucose homeostasis including the pancreas, liver, muscles, adipose tissues, and glucose absorption in the intestine. Diabetes is also involved in modulating major epigenetic pathways such as DNA methylation and histone modification. In this respect, we will discuss the phytochemicals as current and future epigenetic drugs in the treatment of diabetes. In addition, several proteins are common targets for the treatment of diabetes. Some phytochemicals are expected to directly interact with these targets. We lastly uncover modeling studies that predict such plausible interactions. In conclusion, this review article presents the mechanistic insight of phytochemicals in the treatment of diabetes by combining both the cellular systems biology and molecular modeling.
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